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Installing and configuring an SSL certificate on Postfix/Dovecot mail server

From here ….thanks…

This guide describes the ways to enable the SSL/TLS encryption using a trusted SSL certificate for receiving secured incoming and outgoing connections on a Postfix-Dovecot server.

For testing purposes, a Comodo PositiveSSL certificate has been used; however, to secure your mail server, you can purchase any certificate with us as they meet your needs.

The testing was done on the following server stack:

  • Ubuntu 16.04
  • Postfix 3.1.0
  • Dovecot 2.2.22

If you do not have any issued (trusted) certificate yet for the hostname of your mail server, it is necessary to purchase it, generate a CSR needed for activation and once done, activate  it.

If you have your certificate issued, you are able to download it from the SSLs.com user account or from the email (fulfillment email) received  from the Certificate Authority to the administrative contact email address you have chosen during the activation process.

The first thing you need to do is to upload and concatenate the certificate files on the server. You can follow the actions below:

1. Upload the certificate file yourdomainname.crt to the server along with the CA bundle. Keep in mind that the CA bundle can be either in a single file (example.ca-bundle) or in separate files (COMODORSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.crt, COMODORSAAddTrustCA.crt, AddTrustExternalCARoot.crt as in our case). The following files should be saved in the following way: the certificate and CA bundle files in the /etc/ssl/certs/ directory; the corresponding private key (example_com.key) in the /etc/ssl/private/ folder.

2.Combine the uploaded files into one using one of the commands below:

2.1. Create a file with the server certificate and CA chain:

  • cat /etc/ssl/certs/yourdomainname.crt /etc/ssl/certs/yourdomainname.ca-bundle >> /etc/ssl/certs/certificate.crt
  • cat /etc/ssl/certs/yourdomainname.crt /etc/ssl/certs/COMODORSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.crt /etc/ssl/certs/COMODORSAAddTrustCA.crt /etc/ssl/certs/AddTrustExternalCARoot.crt >> /etc/ssl/certs/certificate.crt

2.2. One file with the combined certificate, CA chain and Private Key can be acceptable for Postfix and  Dovecot. One of the commands below can be used to create it:

  • cat /etc/ssl/certs/yourdomainname.crt /etc/ssl/certs/yourdomainname.ca-bundle /etc/ssl/private/yourdomainname.key >> /etc/ssl/certs/certificate_and_key.crt
  • cat /etc/ssl/certs/yourdomainname.crt /etc/ssl/certs/COMODORSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.crt /etc/ssl/certs/COMODORSAAddTrustCA.crt /etc/ssl/certs/AddTrustExternalCARoot.crt /etc/ssl/private/yourdomainname.key >> /etc/ssl/certs/certificate_and_key.crt

In order to check the content of the new file in question, run the following command: cat /etc/ssl/certs/certificate.crt or cat /etc/ssl/certs/certificate_and_key.crt.

It is necessary to check whether there are no excessive white spaces between or inside the PEM-encoded certificate and key blocks in the output.

If you notice such spaces, they can be edited manually – open the file in a text editor like “vi” or “nano” and remove the odd elements.

The editing of Postfix and Dovecot configuration files to enable SSL/TLS on specific ports

The process of sending and receiving mail over the Internet is a complex system of endpoint and intermediary instances (mail server and client software) labeled as mail user agents (MUA), mail submission agents (MSA), mail transfer agents (MTA) and mail delivery agents (MDA) depending on the functions they perform. Normally, an email is passed over each type of the above-mentioned parties, and different transport protocols are used on every step, namely submission protocol, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Post Office Protocol (POP3) and Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).

The below chart shows the use of ports for specific transport protocol execution.

Protocol Usage Plain text / encrypted session Encrypted session only
POP3 Incoming mail 110 995
IMAP Incoming mail 143 993
SMTP Outgoing mail 25 465
Submission Outgoing mail 587

The Opportunistic TLS approach gives the possibility to use ports 25, 110, 143 and 587 either in the plain text (unencrypted) or secure (encrypted) mode. According to this approach, the STARTTLS command is requested when an existing active plain text session happens.

Technically, using ports 465, 993 and 995 and the way HTTP protocol is used over SSL/TLS are similar: 1) secure ports are detached from their “unsecured” counterparts; 2) any data exchange can be performed after establishing an encrypted session.

NOTE: Although port 465 is not listed as the SMTPS port in the official standards of IANA’s documentation, it is used to serve encrypted outgoing mail traffic by mail server administrators.

Both techniques described above are considered to be used in the Internet mail system nowadays. In order to secure your mail, it is better to install an SSL certificate on every mail port you are planning to use.

The steps below will help you to install your SSL certificate for both mail ports: incoming and outgoing ones:

Port 25 (SMTP with STARTTLS)

  1. Open to edit the file named main.cf (Postfix configuration file). You can usually find it in the /etc/postfix/ directory.
  2. Locate the TLS parameters section in the main.cf file and make the changes in the following values of certain directives. See the example below:
  • if  you save the certificate and private key in separate files:

smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/certificate.crt

smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/yourdomainname.key

  • if  you save the certificate and private key in a single file:

smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/certificate_and_key.crt

smtpd_tls_key_file=$smtpd_tls_cert_file

NB: It is necessary to make sure that smtpd_use_tls directive is set to yes:

smtpd_use_tls=yes

Once done, close the main.cf file and save the changes you made.

http://helpdesk.ssls.com/hc/article_attachments/115000773949/post1.jpg

Ports 587 (Submission with STARTTLS) and 465 (SMTPS)

  1. Locate the Postfix’s master.cf file in the /etc/postfix/ directory and open it;
  2. When it is opened, uncomment (or edit if needed) the next lines:
  • to open and protect port 587:

submission inet n       –       y       –       –       smtpd

-o syslog_name=postfix/submission

-o smtpd_tls_security_level=may

-o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes

  • to open and protect port 465:

smtps     inet  n       –       y       –       –       smtpd

-o syslog_name=postfix/smtps

-o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes

-o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes

Now you can close this file.

http://helpdesk.ssls.com/hc/article_attachments/115000773969/post2.jpg

Ports 110 (POP3 with STARTTLS), 143 (IMAP with STARTTLS), 993 (IMAPS) and 995 (POP3S)

If you need to install an SSL certificate for Dovecot, it is essential to follow the next steps:

  • Open the file named 10-ssl.conf. This file can be usually located in the /etc/dovecot/conf.d/ directory.
  • Edit the following lines:

 

  • if  you save the certificate and private key in separate files:

ssl_cert = </etc/ssl/certs/certificate.crt

ssl_key = </etc/ssl/private/yourdomainname.key

  • if  you save the certificate and private key in a single file:

ssl_cert = </etc/ssl/certs/cert_and_key.crt

ssl_key = </etc/ssl/certs/cert_and_key.crt

Make sure that thessl directive is set to yes:

ssl = yes

When the changes are made, close the 10-ssl.conf file.

 

If the steps mentioned above are made, the SSL certificate is installed for all incoming ports now.

http://helpdesk.ssls.com/hc/article_attachments/115000773989/post3.jpg

Please note that if you have the Dovecot version 1.x, the directives for SSL certificates in configuration files may slightly differ:

  • it is necessary to check whether /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf has the following line:

protocols = imap pop3 imaps pop3s

  • edit the /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf file in the following way:

ssl_disable = no

 

– if  you save the certificate and private key in separate files:

ssl_cert_file = </etc/ssl/certs/certificate.crt

ssl_key_file = </etc/ssl/private/yourdomainname.key

 

– if  you save the certificate and private key in a single file:

ssl_cert_file = </etc/ssl/certs/cert_and_key.crt

ssl_key_file = </etc/ssl/certs/cert_and_key.crt

 

Useful tips:

Below you can find the information regarding some additional settings which can be useful in setting up your mail server’s SSL/TLS handling. For further information, you can refer to Postfix andDovecot official documentation regarding this matter as well.

It is possible to use the STARTTLS port on Postfix in the “wrapper” mode with the smtpd_tls_wrappermode directive. Instead of showing the STARTTLS support and waiting for the request from a remote client, this option helps to run  a secure connection from the very beginning. The following directive should be added to /etc/postfix/master.cf , for instance:

smtps inet n     –     n     –     –     smtpd

-o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes

On Dovecot, when you try to log in, there is an opportunity to set the ssl directive to required value (ssl=required), which implies forcing the SSL handshake.

In such cases, the password will be sent in a secure way, meanwhile with ssl = yes, email clients are not requested to use SSL/TLS in precedence. Both plaintext and non-plaintext authentication mechanisms can be applied with this setting.

In order to switch off the plaintext authentication mechanism, it is possible to use disable_plaintext_auth directive (/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-auth.conf):

disable_plaintext_auth=yes

The following directives on Dovecot (/etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf) can be used for eliminating the ciphers which are better not to be used due to low encryption strength:

ssl_dh_parameters_length = 2048

ssl_cipher_list = ALL:!LOW:!SSLv2:!EXP:!aNULL

To exclude certain ciphers or protocols for opportunistic (STARTTLS) or mandatory (regular SSL) encryption, it is possible to use the following directives in /etc/postfix/main.cf and assign the corresponding values to them:

– for mandatory TLS

smtpd_tls_mandatory_exclude_ciphers = [cipher] smtpd_tls_mandatory_protocols = ![protocol]

– for opportunistic TLS

smtpd_tls_exclude_ciphers = [cipher]

smtpd_tls_protocols = ![protocol]

 

To set the server side cipher list more preferable over the client-side one, these directives can be used:

– on Dovecot (/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf)

ssl_prefer_server_ciphers = yes

– on Postfix (/etc/postfix/main.cf)

tls_preempt_cipherlist = yes

 

How to check SSL installation

OpenSSL

 

The OpenSSL toolkit helps to check the SSL certificate installation on a server both remotely and locally.

In order to check STARTTLS ports, the following command should be run. Replace [port] with the port number and [protocol] with smtp, pop3 or imap value:

openssl s_client -connect example.com:[port] -servername example.com -starttls [protocol]

In order to check non-STARTTLS ports, use the following command:

openssl s_client -connect example.com:[port] -servername example.com

http://helpdesk.ssls.com/hc/article_attachments/115000774009/post4.jpg

 

How to check your secure connection

 

In order to check your mail server connectivity over SSL/TLS, the online checkers listed below can be used.

You need to specify the server hostname and port number or an existing email account and run the test.

 

Fail2ban Error in file postfix-sasl.conf

my old file conf was :
failregex = ^%(__prefix_line)swarning: [-._\w]+\[\]: SASL ((?i)LOGIN|PLAIN|(?:CRAM|DIGEST)-MD5) authentication failed(:[ A-Za-z0-9+/:]*={0,2})?\s*$

If you go to https://regex101.com/ you can test the regular expression on the log string :

May 10 15:57:59 mail postfix/smtpd[28617]: warning: ip43.ip-192-99-125.net[192.99.125.43]: SASL LOGIN authentication failed: Connection lost to authentication server

I corrected the error and the the configuration is :

failregex = ^%(__prefix_line)swarning: [-._\w]+\[<HOST>\]: SASL ((?i)LOGIN|PLAIN|(?:CRAM|DIGEST)-MD5) authentication failed(:[ A-Za-z0-9+:]*={0,2})?\s*$

You can leave also the first setting but it is not necessary.

 

 

Bach color Linux

# Reset
Color_Off='\033[0m'       # Text Reset

# Regular Colors
Black='\033[0;30m'        # Black
Red='\033[0;31m'          # Red
Green='\033[0;32m'        # Green
Yellow='\033[0;33m'       # Yellow
Blue='\033[0;34m'         # Blue
Purple='\033[0;35m'       # Purple
Cyan='\033[0;36m'         # Cyan
White='\033[0;37m'        # White

# Bold
BBlack='\033[1;30m'       # Black
BRed='\033[1;31m'         # Red
BGreen='\033[1;32m'       # Green
BYellow='\033[1;33m'      # Yellow
BBlue='\033[1;34m'        # Blue
BPurple='\033[1;35m'      # Purple
BCyan='\033[1;36m'        # Cyan
BWhite='\033[1;37m'       # White

# Underline
UBlack='\033[4;30m'       # Black
URed='\033[4;31m'         # Red
UGreen='\033[4;32m'       # Green
UYellow='\033[4;33m'      # Yellow
UBlue='\033[4;34m'        # Blue
UPurple='\033[4;35m'      # Purple
UCyan='\033[4;36m'        # Cyan
UWhite='\033[4;37m'       # White

# Background
On_Black='\033[40m'       # Black
On_Red='\033[41m'         # Red
On_Green='\033[42m'       # Green
On_Yellow='\033[43m'      # Yellow
On_Blue='\033[44m'        # Blue
On_Purple='\033[45m'      # Purple
On_Cyan='\033[46m'        # Cyan
On_White='\033[47m'       # White

# High Intensity
IBlack='\033[0;90m'       # Black
IRed='\033[0;91m'         # Red
IGreen='\033[0;92m'       # Green
IYellow='\033[0;93m'      # Yellow
IBlue='\033[0;94m'        # Blue
IPurple='\033[0;95m'      # Purple
ICyan='\033[0;96m'        # Cyan
IWhite='\033[0;97m'       # White

# Bold High Intensity
BIBlack='\033[1;90m'      # Black
BIRed='\033[1;91m'        # Red
BIGreen='\033[1;92m'      # Green
BIYellow='\033[1;93m'     # Yellow
BIBlue='\033[1;94m'       # Blue
BIPurple='\033[1;95m'     # Purple
BICyan='\033[1;96m'       # Cyan
BIWhite='\033[1;97m'      # White

# High Intensity backgrounds
On_IBlack='\033[0;100m'   # Black
On_IRed='\033[0;101m'     # Red
On_IGreen='\033[0;102m'   # Green
On_IYellow='\033[0;103m'  # Yellow
On_IBlue='\033[0;104m'    # Blue
On_IPurple='\033[0;105m'  # Purple
On_ICyan='\033[0;106m'    # Cyan
On_IWhite='\033[0;107m'   # White

the escape character in bashhex and octal respectively:

|       | bash  | hex    | octal   | NOTE                         |
|-------+-------+--------+---------+------------------------------|
| start | \e    | \x1b   | \033    |                              |
| start | \E    | \x1B   | -       | x cannot be capital          |
| end   | \e[0m | \x1m0m | \033[0m |                              |
| end   | \e[m  | \x1b[m | \033[m  | 0 is appended if you omit it |
|       |       |        |         |                              |

short example:

| color       | bash         | hex            | octal          | NOTE                                  |
|-------------+--------------+----------------+----------------+---------------------------------------|
| start green | \e[32m<text> | \x1b[32m<text> | \033[32m<text> | m is NOT optional                     |
| reset       | <text>\e[0m  | <text>\1xb[0m  | <text>\033[om  | o is optional (do it as best practice |
|             |              |                |                |                                       |

bash exception:

If you are going to use these codes in your special bash variables

  • PS0
  • PS1
  • PS2 (= this is for prompting)
  • PS4

you should add extra escape characters so that  can interpret them correctly. Without this adding extra escape characters it works but you will face problems when you use Ctrl + r for search in your history.

exception rule for bash

You should add \[ before any starting ANSI code and add \] after any ending ones.
Example:
in regular usage: \033[32mThis is in green\033[0m
for PS0/1/2/4: \[\033[32m\]This is in green\[\033[m\]

\[ is for start of a sequence of non-printable characters
\] is for end of a sequence of non-printable characters

Tip: for memorize it you can first add \[\] and then put your ANSI code between them:
– \[start-ANSI-code\]
– \[end-ANSI-code\]

type of color sequence:

  1. 3/4 bit
  2. 8 bit
  3. 24 bit

Before diving into these colors, you should know about 4 modes with these codes:

1. color-mode

It modifies the style of color NOT text. For example make the color bright or darker.

  • 0 reset
  • 1; lighter than normal
  • 2; darker than normal

This mode is not supported widely. It is fully support on Gnome-Terminal.

2. text-mode

This mode is for modifying the style of text NOT color.

  • 3; italic
  • 4; underline
  • 5; blinking (slow)
  • 6; blinking (fast)
  • 7; reverse
  • 8; hide
  • 9; cross-out

and are almost supported.
For example KDE-Konsole supports 5; but Gnome-Terminal does not and Gnome supports 8;but KDE does not.

3. foreground mode

This mode is for colorizing the foreground.

4. background mode

This mode is for colorizing the background.

The below table shows a summary of 3/4 bit version of ANSI-color

|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
| color-mode | octal    | hex     | bash  | description      | example (= in octal)         | NOTE                                 |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|          0 | \033[0m  | \x1b[0m | \e[0m | reset any affect | echo -e "\033[0m"            | 0m equals to m                       |
|          1 | \033[1m  |         |       | light (= bright) | echo -e "\033[1m####\033[m"  | -                                    |
|          2 | \033[2m  |         |       | dark (= fade)    | echo -e "\033[2m####\033[m"  | -                                    |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|  text-mode | ~        |         |       | ~                | ~                            | ~                                    |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|          3 | \033[3m  |         |       | italic           | echo -e "\033[3m####\033[m"  |                                      |
|          4 | \033[4m  |         |       | underline        | echo -e "\033[4m####\033[m"  |                                      |
|          5 | \033[5m  |         |       | blink (slow)     | echo -e "\033[3m####\033[m"  |                                      |
|          6 | \033[6m  |         |       | blink (fast)     | ?                            | not wildly support                   |
|          7 | \003[7m  |         |       | reverse          | echo -e "\033[7m####\033[m"  | it affects the background/foreground |
|          8 | \033[8m  |         |       | hide             | echo -e "\033[8m####\033[m"  | it affects the background/foreground |
|          9 | \033[9m  |         |       | cross            | echo -e "\033[9m####\033[m"  |                                      |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
| foreground | ~        |         |       | ~                | ~                            | ~                                    |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|         30 | \033[30m |         |       | black            | echo -e "\033[30m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         31 | \033[31m |         |       | red              | echo -e "\033[31m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         32 | \033[32m |         |       | green            | echo -e "\033[32m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         33 | \033[32m |         |       | yellow           | echo -e "\033[33m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         34 | \033[32m |         |       | blue             | echo -e "\033[34m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         35 | \033[32m |         |       | purple           | echo -e "\033[35m####\033[m" | real name: magenta = reddish-purple  |
|         36 | \033[32m |         |       | cyan             | echo -e "\033[36m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         37 | \033[32m |         |       | white            | echo -e "\033[37m####\033[m" |                                      |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|         38 | 8/24     |                    This is for special use of 8-bit or 24-bit                                            |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
| background | ~        |         |       | ~                | ~                            | ~                                    |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|         40 | \033[40m |         |       | black            | echo -e "\033[40m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         41 | \033[41m |         |       | red              | echo -e "\033[41m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         42 | \033[42m |         |       | green            | echo -e "\033[42m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         43 | \033[43m |         |       | yellow           | echo -e "\033[43m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         44 | \033[44m |         |       | blue             | echo -e "\033[44m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         45 | \033[45m |         |       | purple           | echo -e "\033[45m####\033[m" | real name: magenta = reddish-purple  |
|         46 | \033[46m |         |       | cyan             | echo -e "\033[46m####\033[m" |                                      |
|         47 | \033[47m |         |       | white            | echo -e "\033[47m####\033[m" |                                      |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|
|         48 | 8/24     |                    This is for special use of 8-bit or 24-bit                                            |                                                                                       |
|------------+----------+---------+-------+------------------+------------------------------+--------------------------------------|

The below table shows a summary of 8 bit version of ANSI-color

|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|
| foreground | octal     | hex       | bash    | description      | example                            | NOTE                    |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|
|        0-7 | \033[38;5 | \x1b[38;5 | \e[38;5 | standard. normal | echo -e '\033[38;5;1m####\033[m'   |                         |
|       8-15 |           |           |         | standard. light  | echo -e '\033[38;5;9m####\033[m'   |                         |
|     16-231 |           |           |         | more resolution  | echo -e '\033[38;5;45m####\033[m'  | has no specific pattern |
|    232-255 |           |           |         |                  | echo -e '\033[38;5;242m####\033[m' | from black to white     |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|
| foreground | octal     | hex       | bash    | description      | example                            | NOTE                    |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|
|        0-7 |           |           |         | standard. normal | echo -e '\033[48;5;1m####\033[m'   |                         |
|       8-15 |           |           |         | standard. light  | echo -e '\033[48;5;9m####\033[m'   |                         |
|     16-231 |           |           |         | more resolution  | echo -e '\033[48;5;45m####\033[m'  |                         |
|    232-255 |           |           |         |                  | echo -e '\033[48;5;242m####\033[m' | from black to white     |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+------------------+------------------------------------+-------------------------|

The 8-bit fast test:
for code in {0..255}; do echo -e "\e[38;05;${code}m $code: Test"; done

The below table shows a summary of 24 bit version of ANSI-color

|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|
| foreground | octal     | hex       | bash    | description | example                                  | NOTE            |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|
|      0-255 | \033[38;2 | \x1b[38;2 | \e[38;2 | R = red     | echo -e '\033[38;2;255;0;02m####\033[m'  | R=255, G=0, B=0 |
|      0-255 | \033[38;2 | \x1b[38;2 | \e[38;2 | G = green   | echo -e '\033[38;2;;0;255;02m####\033[m' | R=0, G=255, B=0 |
|      0-255 | \033[38;2 | \x1b[38;2 | \e[38;2 | B = blue    | echo -e '\033[38;2;0;0;2552m####\033[m'  | R=0, G=0, B=255 |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|
| background | octal     | hex       | bash    | description | example                                  | NOTE            |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|
|      0-255 | \033[48;2 | \x1b[48;2 | \e[48;2 | R = red     | echo -e '\033[48;2;255;0;02m####\033[m'  | R=255, G=0, B=0 |
|      0-255 | \033[48;2 | \x1b[48;2 | \e[48;2 | G = green   | echo -e '\033[48;2;;0;255;02m####\033[m' | R=0, G=255, B=0 |
|      0-255 | \033[48;2 | \x1b[48;2 | \e[48;2 | B = blue    | echo -e '\033[48;2;0;0;2552m####\033[m'  | R=0, G=0, B=255 |
|------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-------------+------------------------------------------+-----------------|

some screen-shots

foreground 8-bit summary in a .gif

foreground.gif

background 8-bit summary in a .gif

background.gif

color summary with their values

enter image description here enter image description here enter image description here enter image description here

blinking on KDE-Terminal

KDE-blinking

 a simple C code that shows you more

cecho_screenshot

 a more advanced tool that I developed to deal with these colors:
bline


color-mode shot

fade-normal-bright

text mode shot

only-text-mode

combining is OK

combine

more shots

Tips and Tricks for Advanced Users and Programmers:

Can we use these codes in a programming language?

Yes, you can. I experienced in  

Are they slow down the speed of a program?

I think, NO.

Can we use these on Windows?

3/4-bit Yes, if you compile the code with gcc
some screen-shots on Win-7

How to calculate the length of code?

\033[ = 2, other parts 1

Where can we use these codes?

Anywhere that has a tty interpreter
xtermgnome-terminalkde-terminalmysql-client-CLI and so on.
For example if you want to colorize your output with mysql you can use Perl

#!/usr/bin/perl -n
print "\033[1m\033[31m$1\033[36m$2\033[32m$3\033[33m$4\033[m" while /([|+-]+)|([0-9]+)|([a-zA-Z_]+)|([^\w])/g;

store this code in a file name: pcc (= Perl Colorize Character) and then put the file a in valid PATHthen use it anywhere you like.

ls | pcc
df | pcc

inside mysql first register it for pager and then try:

[user2:db2] pager pcc
PAGER set to 'pcc'
[user2:db2] select * from table-name;

pcc

It does NOT handle Unicode.

Do these codes only do colorizing?

No, they can do a lot of interesting things. Try:

echo -e '\033[2K'  # clear the screen and do not move the position

or:

echo -e '\033[2J\033[u' # clear the screen and reset the position

There are a lot of beginners that want to clear the screen with system( "clear" ) so you can use this instead of system(3) call

Are they available in Unicode?

Yes. \u001b

Which version of these colors is preferable?

It is easy to use 3/4-bit, but it is much accurate and beautiful to use 24-bit.
If you do not have experience with  so here is a quick tutorial:
24 bits means: 00000000 and 00000000 and 00000000. Each 8-bit is for a specific color.
24..17 is for  and 16..9 for  and 8..1 for 
So in  #FF0000 means  and here it is: 255;0;0
in  #00FF00 means  which here is: 0;255;0
Does that make sense? what color you want combine it with these three 8-bit values.

reference:
Wikipedia
ANSI escape sequences
tldp.org
tldp.org
misc.flogisoft.com
some blogs/web-pages that I do not remember

How to update Roundcube

I followed this link

I created a backup database copy and I untar the files from roundcube.net.I created a parallel virtualhost like webmailtest.yourdomain.it.

Upload the new files

Use your favorite FTP/SFTP/SCP program to upload the updated files, which are:

  • ./bin/*
  • ./SQL/*
  • ./program/*
  • ./installer/*
  • ./vendor/*

Upload plugins/* and skins/* from the release package but don’t replace the entire skinsand plugins folders! You might have added other skins and plugins to those directories which you want to keep.

Also copy the default config file and the mimetypes mapping:

  • config/defaults.inc.php
  • config/mimetypes.php

Run the installer

Edit your Roundcube config (config/config.inc.php, or config/main.inc.php for versions < 1.0) and set 'enable_installer' to true. Then open http://<url-to-roundcube>/installer/in your web browser and click “3. Test config”

Follow the instructions on the screen to update your local config and the database schema.

When you’re done and all the lights are green in the installer, edit your Roundcube config file again and set 'enable_installer' to false if it’s still present. To seal your installation, you should even remove the installer directory from the webserver.

Running Tomcat Automatically At Linux Startup

A potential drawback of installing Tomcat from a binary distribution instead of using a Linux-packaged version is that you’ll have to do some extra legwork to make Tomcat start automatically when Linux boots up.  To make this process easy and pain-free, follow this simple guide.

Step 1 – Create A Tomcat-Specific User and User Group

It’s a bad idea to run Tomcat as the root user, especially if you’re going to be starting Tomcat automatically.  It’s much more secure to create a new group and user specifically to run Tomcat.  You can do so with the following commands (in this example, we have created a user group named tomcat, and a user named tomcat with the password tomcat; you can certainly be more creative if you wish):

$ groupadd tomcat
$ useradd -s /sbin/nologin -g tomcat -d /path/to/tomcat tomcat

or
$ useradd -r -s /sbin/nologin tomcat

-r for system user
$ passwd tomcat

-r, –system
Create a system account.

System users will be created with no aging information in /etc/shadow, and their
numeric identifiers are chosen in the SYS_UID_MIN-SYS_UID_MAX range, defined in
/etc/login.defs, instead of UID_MIN-UID_MAX (and their GID counterparts for the
creation of groups).

Note that useradd will not create a home directory for such an user, regardless
of the default setting in /etc/login.defs (CREATE_HOME). You have to specify the
-m options if you want a home directory for a system account to be created.

-s, –shell SHELL
The name of the user’s login shell. The default is to leave this field blank,
which causes the system to select the default login shell specified by the SHELL
variable in /etc/default/useradd, or an empty string by default.

Esample:

useradd -m -d /home/thenewuser -s /bin/bash -c "the new user" -U thenewuser

-c “message” : extra information about the user.

-U thenewuser : Create a group with the same name as the user, and add the user to this group.

-N : the -N argument tells the system not to create a group having the user’s name

-m, –create-home are same: Create the user’s home directory if it does not exist.

-d, –home HOME_DIR : The new user will be created using HOME_DIR as the value for the user’s login directory.
if -d is not used the default homedirectory will be /home/thenewuser

-m -d /data/thenewuser : the -m argument creates the /data/thenewuser homedirectory, specified by the -d argument.

-M : the -M argument tells the system not to create a home directory

-s /bin/bash : the -s is used for specifing the user’s default shell, /bin/bash in this case.

-s or –shell are same.

-s /sbin/nologin : The /sbin/nologin for Fedora and /usr/sbin/nologin for Debian are two shells that return you a polite message like “this account is not available” and do not allow you to log into the system. This message can be customized.

-s /bin/false : Is an old shell used to deny a user’s login. The /bin/false exits immediatly when false exists. The user accounts with /bin/false or /bin/true as their default shells are locked.

-s /sbin/nologin belongs to unix-linux while /bin/false part of GNU Coreutils. These shells must be listed in the /etc/shells file, to work.

The users with /sbin/nologin (or /usr/sbin/nologin) can connect through ssh or ftp, but the users with /bin/false are completely locked out from the system.

with useradd -D : You can also view the default parameters set for new user to be created using

# useradd -D
GROUP=100
HOME=/home
INACTIVE=-1
EXPIRE=
SHELL=/bin/bash
SKEL=/etc/skel
CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes
#

Step 2 – Adjust Ownership For New Users And Groups

Now that you have created a user to run Tomcat, you’ll need to give them access to the correct directories.  Use the following commands, substituting your own usernames and groups as necessary:

# chown -R tomcat.tomcat /path/to/tomcat
# chmod 775 /path/to/tomcat/webapps
The first gives ownership of the Tomcat directories to the Tomcat user, and the second gives the user write access for the webapps directory.

Step 3 – Relay Traffic For Non-Root Tomcat User

When running Tomcat as a user other than the root user, you will not be able to bind to port 80, which is where Tomcat listens for HTTP requests.  To get around this, you can use Netfilter, which is packaged with all major Linux distributions:

# iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp –dport 80 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 8080
# iptables -t nat -I OUTPUT -p tcp –dport 80 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 8080
To preserve these rules through re-boot, save them with the “ip-tables-save” command, and then follow the procedure appropriate for your Linux distribution (for most distributions, this means editing the iptables init script; Debian users should load the configuration via a script called by if-up.d or pre-up.d).

Step 3 – Create A Custom init Script

To start Tomcat at Linux boot time, we’ll need to create an init script that calls the startup.sh and shutdown.sh scripts included with Tomcat.

The actual creation of this script is outside the scope of this article, but there are many useful resources available online.  All you need to know in order to use the basic init script format to call Tomcat is how the startup.sh and shutdown.sh scripts work.

For more information about these scripts, visit our Tomcat Start page, which includes a simple, step-by-step guide to Tomcat’s three start-up shell scripts.

like :

chmod 774 /opt/apache-tomcat-8.0.12-1/ -Rf

export JAVA_OPTS=”-agentlib:hprof=cpu=samples,file=/var/log/cpuTest.log”

#/opt/apache-tomcat-8.0.12-2/bin/startup.sh
TOMCAT_OWNER=tomcat;
export TOMCAT_OWNER

CATALINA_HOME=/opt/apache-tomcat-8.0.12-2;
export CATALINA_HOME

/bin/su -s /bin/bash $TOMCAT_OWNER -c $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh